^ Leichter, Howard M. (1979). A comparative approach to policy analysis: health care policy in four nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-521-22648-1. The Sickness Insurance Law (1883). Eligibility. The Sickness Insurance Law came into effect in December 1884. It provided for compulsory participation by all industrial wage earners (i.e., manual laborers) in factories, ironworks, mines, shipbuilding yards, and similar workplaces.
2 Telehealth providers participating in the Cigna Telehealth Connection program are independent contractors and separate from Plan network providers. Not all providers have video chat capabilities. Video chat is not available in all areas. PCP referral is not required. Refer to plan documents for a complete description of covered services, including other telehealth/telemedicine benefits. Program availability may vary by location and plan type. See vendor sites for details.
The remaining 45% of health care funding comes from insurance premiums paid by the public, for which companies compete on price, though the variation between the various competing insurers is only about 5%. However, insurance companies are free to sell additional policies to provide coverage beyond the national minimum. These policies do not receive funding from the equalization pool, but cover additional treatments, such as dental procedures and physiotherapy, which are not paid for by the mandatory policy.
Few factors bear as heavily on the well-being of any state’s citizens as their overall quality of health. In evaluating the Best States for health care, access to preventative medical and dental treatment for children and adults alike is a key consideration. Since adoption of the Affordable Care Act of 2010, also known as “Obamacare,” the percentage of Americans without health insurance has reached a record low, falling below 10 percent. The measure has been politically controversial since its inception, and the Republican-run Congress and President Donald Trump have vowed to repeal Obamacare. A rollback of the law's mandate that everyone have coverage – either through employers or public health care programs – or pay a tax penalty passed in late 2017, posing challenges to millions who have found insurance under the law.
The states were ranked on health care using three broad benchmarks: Access to care, quality of care and the overall health of the population. This includes concerning measures such as the percentage of adults without health insurance and the percentage who haven’t had a routine checkup in the past year – including those who went without medical attention because of the cost. It includes positive measures such as the percentage of children receiving medical and dental care under Medicaid. It includes measures of preventable hospital admissions, readmissions within 30 days of discharge, nursing home quality ratings and numbers of seniors covered under high-quality Medicare Advantage plans. It involves general measures that correspond with good physical and mental health – rates of smoking, obesity and suicide, along with self-reported mental health. And it takes into account infant and overall mortality rates.
Private Health Insurance Rebate: The government subsidises the premiums for all private health insurance cover, including hospital and ancillary (extras), by 10%, 20% or 30%, depending on age. The Rudd Government announced in May 2009 that as of July 2010, the Rebate would become means-tested, and offered on a sliding scale. While this move (which would have required legislation) was defeated in the Senate at the time, in early 2011 the Gillard Government announced plans to reintroduce the legislation after the Opposition loses the balance of power in the Senate. The ALP and Greens have long been against the rebate, referring to it as "middle-class welfare".
Background: Aim of study was to assess impact of deformable registration of diagnostic MRI to planning CT upon gross tumour volume (GTV) delineation of oropharyngeal carcinoma in routine practice. Methods: 22 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive (chemo)radiotherapy between 2015 and 2016, for whom primary GTV delineation had been performed by a single radiation oncologist using deformable registration of diagnostic MRI to planning CT, were identified. Separate GTVs were delineated as part of routine clinical practice (all diagnostic imaging available side-by-side for each delineation) using: CT (GTVCT), MRI (GTVMR), and CT and MRI (GTVCTMR). Volumetric and positional metric analyses were undertaken using contour comparison metrics (Dice conformity index, centre of gravity distance, mean distance to conformity). Results: Median GTV volumes were 13.7 cm3 (range 3.5–41.7), 15.9 cm3 (range 1.6–38.3), 19.9 cm3 (range 5.5–44.5) for GTVCT, GTVMR and GTVCTMR respectively. There was no significant difference in GTVCT and GTVMR volumes; GTVCTMR was found to be significantly larger than both GTVMR and GTVCT. Based on positional metrics, GTVCT and GTVMR were the least similar (mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) 0.71, 0.84, 0.82 for GTVCT–GTVMR, GTVCTMR–GTVCT and GTVCTMR–GTVMR respectively). Conclusions: These data suggest a complementary role of MRI to CT to reduce the risk of geographical misses, although they highlight the potential for larger target volumes and hence toxicity. Full article
There are two major types of insurance programs available in Japan – Employees Health Insurance (健康保険 Kenkō-Hoken), and National Health Insurance (国民健康保険 Kokumin-Kenkō-Hoken). National Health insurance is designed for people who are not eligible to be members of any employment-based health insurance program. Although private health insurance is also available, all Japanese citizens, permanent residents, and non-Japanese with a visa lasting one year or longer are required to be enrolled in either National Health Insurance or Employees Health Insurance.
There are also some states where insurers that are expanding their existing coverage areas, including Kentucky and Colorado. But that’s not the case everywhere. Some insurers in Washington, for example, are reducing their coverage areas. And in Georgia, Anthem is simultaneously reducing the number of counties where they’ll offer plans, but increasing the number of people who will be eligible for their plans (by exiting numerous rural counties and rejoining almost as many populous counties)
The Commonwealth Fund, in its annual survey, "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall", compares the performance of the health care systems in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada and the U.S. Its 2007 study found that, although the U.S. system is the most expensive, it consistently under-performs compared to the other countries. One difference between the U.S. and the other countries in the study is that the U.S. is the only country without universal health insurance coverage.
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While federal officials say the intention is to provide more affordable coverage options, critics say the move — coupled with the recent elimination of a penalty for non-coverage starting in 2019 — could drive even more young and healthy consumers away from the ACA marketplace. Short-term plans come with limited coverage and are largely unavailable to people with health problems.
If something unexpected happens to you – like a car accident or a serious illness – hospital expenses can quickly rack up. Individual health insurance can help prevent staggering expenses if you face a medical emergency. Major medical insurance is a type of coverage that provides benefits for a broad range of health-care services, both inpatient and outpatient. This health insurance can save you money on routine doctor's visits, prescription drug coverage, preventative care and other medical services. The plan will typically come with costs such as a monthly premium, an annual deductible, copayments, and coinsurance.